Causes of Water Pollution
We all know that water is an essential element of our life. We cannot live without water. Water is the basic need to perform our daily activities such as drinking, bathing, washing, cooking etc. Water is not only used to fulfill our domestic needs but industrial requirements as well. In short, we cannot imagine our life without water.
Almost 70% of Earth’s surface is covered with water which makes it a great natural resource for us. Unfortunately, we all have contributed a lot to contaminate this natural resource to an extreme level that the water contains Earth’s surface has become a poisonous puddle. The water bodies have to swallow everything we dump in it starting from plastics to chemical disposals. In simple terms, the contamination of water in any form is known as water pollution.
Presently there are many environmental issues which the Earth is going through, out of which water pollution is one of the big issues. The property of water allows most of the pollutants to dissolve in it quite easily and thus it contaminates very easily. Water pollution is a big problem for the Eco-system of marine life. It is very important to find out the solution to tackle water pollution and for that first of all, we need to know the causes of water pollution. You can check out the main causes of water pollution as discussed below.
- Urban development at a faster rate
In the past few decades, urban development is going on quite rapidly. People have started building huge constructions such as apartments, shopping complexes, roads, industries etc. just for the sake of development. These constructions are eventually spoiling the environment in various ways such as water pollution.
The industries are dumping its chemical wastes in different water bodies such as oceans, rivers, lakes etc. Industrial wastes have become one of the biggest threats to these water bodies. Not only the chemical wastes of factories are polluting the water contains present on Earth but water is getting polluted in many other ways directly or indirectly linked to urban development. For example- chemicals or detergents drained from houses, toxins from highway runoffs washed in rivers or groundwater along with rainwater, soil erosion through deforestation for urban development etc.
- Dumping of Radio-active wastes
We all know that radioactive wastes are very hazardous for our health as well as for the environment. Highly concentrated radioactive wastes can cause severe health issues such as cancer that ultimately can result in the death of an individual. There are many companies that discharge their radioactive wastes into the ocean and contaminate the water culture of oceans. The oceanic currents carry these radioactive wastes with them to other parts across the globe.
- Inappropriate sewage disposal
As the world population is increasing day by day, simultaneously the sewage disposal has become a big issue. The inappropriate ways of sewage disposal are increasing the chances of diseases connected to water. The sewage is disposed into oceans either indirect ways or indirect ways.
According to the theories, approx 90% of sewage wastes contains water and there is also a natural substance present in sewage which can easily be decomposed by the environment. Sewage also contains various chemical substances such as paper, plastic, viruses, pharmaceutical products etc. and when these substances mix with water can cause various diseases such as typhoid, hepatitis, cholera etc.
- Water pollution through oil spills
Most of the oil spills occur due to accidental incidents of tankers in oceans. These accidents release a huge amount of oil spills in oceanic water. The oil spills affect the oceanic Eco-system causing hazardous effects. It affects the lives of millions of animal and plant species underwater.
- Use of harmful fertilizers for agriculture
As the world population is increasing rapidly, hence the demand for agricultural products is also increasing day by day. To fulfill the increasing demand for agricultural products, the farmers have started using fertilizers to increase the production of these products. These fertilizers contain many toxic chemicals and when these toxins come in contact with water results in algal blooms. Due to algal blooms, the oxygen level starts increasing in the water which causes the death of innocent plant and animal species underwater.
- Disposal of plastics in the Oceans
Plastic has become a major part of our lifestyle today. It has become a vital part of our daily activities starting from our home to the office. Plastic products are very light in weight and can easily float with the waves. Most of the time, plastic enters in water bodies through dumping of wastes in rivers, oceans, lakes etc.
Plastic is a non-biodegradable material and it takes many years to decompose. The plastic has become a big threat to marine life and a big issue for the environment too. It hampers the life of millions of water animals and plant species. Plastic is as harmful as other chemicals disposed of in oceans.
- Discharge of Industrial Wastes
Industrial waste is one of the biggest reasons for the emerging causes of water pollution. Industrial wastes such as mercury, lead, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Cadmium, Tributyltin etc. disposed of in water bodies affects the ecosystem of water quite badly. The water animals are affecting with these industrial wastes and also cause the brutal death of thousands of water animal species. When small water animals consume these disposed chemical wastes and these small animals are consumed by other big water animals and so on. The entire food chain gets affected in this way which is a big environmental issue to deal with.
- Water pollution through mining
Mining also causes water pollution. The process of extracting minerals under the surface of Earth’s crust is known as mining. These minerals contain many harmful chemicals when extracted in raw form. These harmful chemicals when mixed with water cause hazardous effects on marine life.
These were some of the major causes of water pollution, can you suggest solutions to it? You are welcome to add some in the comment box. Please share it with your kids to make them understand it better.