Introduction: The entry of a pollutant into the atmosphere causes harm not only to the living organism but also to the environment. Therefore, the study of types of environmental pollution becomes important. These pollutants are present in many forms. When found in excessive amounts, it can contaminate the environment a lot.
Pollution affects our ecosystem too. Economic development is increasing across the world today. But, it is also increasing the level of pollution in the environment. This has hazardous effects on our planet.
Table of Contents
- 1 Types of Environmental Pollution
- 1.1 Air Pollution
- 1.2 Industrial Environmental Pollution
- 1.3 Water Pollution
- 1.4 Noise Pollution
- 1.5 Land Environmental Pollution
- 1.6 Thermal Pollution
- 1.7 Light Pollution
- 1.8 Radioactive Pollution
Types of Environmental Pollution
There are many forms of pollution. Some examples are – air, water, noise, light, etc. The rate of pollution through all these is increasing quite rapidly; This is a situation of great worry.
The condition of our planet is very alarming. To find a solution to this problem, we must first know what it is in detail. Hence, let’s discuss the different types of environmental pollution.
Air pollution results in extremely hazardous effects on humanity and the environment as well. The rate of air pollution is increasing day by day with the increase of urbanization & industrialization.
With the release of harmful substances into the atmosphere; the air gets contaminated automatically.
What Causes Air Pollution?
Both human and natural activities cause air pollution. For example– emission of pollutants from factories are human activities that cause air pollution; on the other hand, forest fire causes air pollution, which is a natural activity.
Some more causes of air pollution:
- Fumes Exhausted by vehicles.
- Industrial Plants and Factories emit air pollutants.
- Power Plants using fossil fuels
- Natural causes like forest fires, dust storms, and Volcanoes.
- Heavy Construction and agricultural pollution (ammonia).
Effects of Air Pollution:
Air pollution causes many health problems to humans such as cardiovascular illness, respiratory issues, etc. This hinders the oxygen supply in the body and decreases the functioning of the lungs. Air pollution may also cause some other severe health issues such as cell damaging, chances of heart attack, etc.
More effects of air pollution:
- Leads to acid rain.
- Increases global warming.
- Household activities increase indoor air pollution.
- Airborne diseases are affecting both humans and animals.
Industrial Environmental Pollution
When industrial waste, chemicals, toxins, etc. are released into the environment through air, water, or land, it causes industrial pollution. Industrial fumes pollute the air. Disposal of contaminants in rivers and oceans leads to water contamination. Also, waste from industries gets accumulated in a landfill, making the environment polluted.
Causes of industrial pollution:
- Using old technologies which cause more pollution.
- Lack of proper rules and regulations.
- Lacks adequate disposal of waste.
- High industrial growth.
Effects of industrial pollution:
- Water pollution.
- Land pollution.
- Increase in ocean acidification.
- Burning fossil fuels lead to air pollution.
- Imbalance in the ecosystem.
- Hampers the health of plants, animals & humans and
- Disturbs the ecology of water bodies.
What Can We Do to Stop It?
Industrial pollution has become a type of environmental pollution that is continuously increasing after the industrial revolution. The industries should cooperate in minimizing the pollution from its source itself. This will prevent it from spreading in the environment.
Reduction in toxic metals from the source will ensure they don’t accumulate in the environment. There should be control over the emission of toxic gases. The bottom line is that if consumers can limit their requirements & demand, then the supply will automatically see a reduction. As a result of this, we can bring down the level of pollution from various industries.
Water is our primary need. We won’t survive without it. But unfortunately, the water bodies such as rivers, oceans, lakes, groundwater, etc. are getting contaminated at an alarming rate.
Causes of water pollution:
Water pollution happens when the contaminants such as harmful chemicals, industrial wastes, fertilizers, etc. enter into the water bodies. This type of pollution is mainly caused by various unhealthy activities of human beings.
Examples are: dumping industrial waste, sewage disposal, dumping wastes, mining, oil spills, etc. These pollutants affect the Eco-system underwater by spoiling the life of numerous plants & animal species. Water pollution not only harms aquatic life but affects the entire food chain too.
Plastic is another major pollutant. It is harming the aquatic ecosystem a lot.
What Have the Governments Done?
There are many initiatives taken by different countries to tackle water pollution worldwide. As per news sources, G20 countries have committed to minimizing plastic ocean waste. Also, the Queensland state parliament has passed laws to save the Great Barrier Reef. Minimization of the sediment & pesticides coming from the farms along the coastline is its main focus.
When the intensity of sound crosses 85 dB, it causes us both mental and physical discomfort. This is what is known as sound pollution. It is also called noise pollution which affects not only human health but is also harmful to animals.
Effects of noise pollution in humans include:
- It may cause hypertension.
- Blood pressure problems.
- An increase in stress level.
- Leads to anxiety.
Effects of noise pollution in animals include:
- Reproductive problems.
- Breeding problems.
- Production issues.
- Loss of hearing.
There may be several reasons for noise pollution such as loudspeakers, disco, marriage functions, industrial noise, etc. But we can control it through various steps.
For example –
- Lower the volume to avoid unnecessary noise pollution,
- stop using loudspeaker late at night,
- strictly follow the noise pollution limits,
- near sensitive zones like hospitals, we should put up boards and check the level of noise.
Land Environmental Pollution
It is also known as soil pollution. When the quality of the Earth’s top surface i.e. soil – decreases, it leads to land pollution.
The leading causes of land pollution are:
- Improper disposal of wastes released from factories and agricultural wastes also cause land pollution.
- Rapid construction,
- Mineral exploitation,
- Acid rain,
- chemicals used in agriculture.
Soil degradation (through excessive grazing, excessive farming, extreme mining activities, etc.) also causes soil pollution. It is contaminating the surface of the earth, and hence the environment is getting polluted.
Land pollution eventually hampers the health of living organisms. Therefore, many countries are making new rules and regulations to tackle land pollution.
Greece is an excellent example. The Govt. of Greece has announced to treat plastic waste to save its beaches. They have prioritized the reduction of plastic pollution and also resolved to stop single-use plastic.
San Francisco has also taken an excellent initiative. ‘San Francisco International Airport’ has banned the selling of single-use plastic bottles. These small initiatives will become revolutionary steps towards environmental protection.
The excessive heat released from vehicles & factories may cause unwanted changes in nature. Thermal pollution is polluting the water bodies on the Earth’s surface. In short, it is also a reason for water pollution. Earth’s temperature is increasing day by day due to this. The effect is that it’s eventually causing climate change, global warming, wildlife extinction, etc.
Causes of thermal pollution:
- Increases Toxin levels.
- Biodiversity in danger.
- Increases temperature of the water.
- Leads to soil erosion and deforestation.
Effects of thermal pollution:
- Harm to the marine life reproductive system.
- Migration of marine species because of warm water.
- Loss of life of many fishes and insects.
- Huge environmental impact.
Excessive use of artificial light leads to this type of pollution. It lights up the skies at night. The cycle of natural activities gets upset due to light pollution.
As a result of this, wildlife is also getting affected. It causes them an unnecessary nuisance. It is mainly observed in metropolitan & busy cities.
Well, this type of pollution happens due to the irresponsible disposal of nuclear waste and accidents in nuclear plants. Radioactive pollution is the most hazardous pollution. It has permanent effects on living organisms & the environment too.
Causes of radioactive pollution:
- Some cosmic rays are not visible to human eyes.
- Nuclear tests and accidents.
- Radiation tests.
- Increases of geological processes by mining.
- Using radioactive chemicals.
- Blindness, skin allergy, infertility, etc.
Effects of radioactive pollution:
- Many skin diseases, including cancer.
- Genetic mutations.
- This leads to soil infertility, and nutrients quality decreases.
- Burning of skin.
However, it is quite hard to avoid radiation in our life because radiation is everywhere. Our cell phones, medical examination equipment, etc. everything runs on radiation. Radiation surrounds us at every moment of our life.
The best option to protect ourselves from radiation is to maintain some distance from gadgets and equipment. We also should minimize the use of these types of equipment to save the environment.
If you can think of more types of environmental pollution, reply in the comment box. We will update it. In the meantime, go ahead and share this article with your friends.